This is a photo of some amphorae found at Pompeii and they are probably very like the one Hercules would have taken his drink from. They were very large containers with tapered bottoms for storing wine, made from terracotta or stone.
Dé quartó labóre, quem suprá nárrávimus, haec etiam tráduntur. Herculés dum iter in Arcadiam facit, ad eam regiónem vénit quam centaurí incolébant. Cum nox iam appeteret, ad spéluncam dévertit in quá centaurus
quídam, nómine Pholus, habitábat.
Ille Herculem benígné excépit et cénam parávit. At Herculés postquam cénávit, vínum á Pholó postulávit. Erat autem in spéluncá mágna amphora vínó optimó repléta, quam centaurí ibi déposuerant. Pholus igitur hóc vínum dare nólébat, quod reliquós centaurós timébat; núllum tamen vínum praeter hóc in spéluncá habébat. "Hóc vínum," inquit, "mihi commissum est. Sí igitur hóc dabó, centaurí mé interficient." Herculés tamen eum inrísit, et ipse póculum víní dé amphorá hausit.
De etc – de, ‘about’, followed by ablative case.
Quem – relative pronoun, masculine singular accusative case, ‘which’ referring to labor, laboris masculine third declension noun, which we call its antecedent. (See pronouns GRAMMAR NOTES left top sidebar under PAGES).
Narrivimus - Have you noticed that in past posts I have sometimes said ‘We have chosen some words etc.’ instead of ‘I have chosen’ when in fact it is of course only me doing the choosing? This is called the ‘plural of modesty’ (as apposed to the ‘royal we’ which is the we the Queen uses and it is being used here by the narrator of our story.
Haec – could be feminine singular but as traduntur (passive) is plural it must be plural and means therefore ‘these things’ (see hic, haec, hoc under Pronouns in GRAMMAR NOTES left sidebar under PAGES).
In Arcadiam – notice that here we have the accusative Arcadiam because ‘in’ here means ‘into’ implying motion into whereas in Acadia, ablative case, would mean ‘in Arcadia, to indicate ‘place where’.
Quam – relative pronoun again, but feminine singular accusative case this time, ‘which’, referring to regionem (its antecedent).
Cum nox … appeteret – in a clause after cum meaning ‘since’ we have the imperfect subjunctive.
in qua – in which, relative pronoun, ablative case to indicate place where, the antecedent being ‘spelunca’ cave.
Ille Herculem … excepit – notice that ille is in the nominative = that man referring to Pholus and Herculem is accusative so it means that man (or simply he) welcomed Hercules.
a Pholo – notice that to ask for something from someone takes the accusative for the thing asked for (here vinum) and the ablative after a (or ab before a vowel) with the person who the thing is asked from.
autem – sometimes means ‘however’ or ‘moreover# or can be simply translated as ‘now’.
Erat – can mean he, she or it was and, as here, there was.
Deposuerant – pluperfect tense of deponere, meaning ‘they had put’.
Vino optimo – with the best wine, with excellent wine; optimo is the superlative adjective of bonus.
Quam – relative pronoun again, feminine singular accusative, here referring to amphora.
Quod – not a relative pronoun here but a conjunction meaning ‘because’.
Timebat – notice that timere takes accusative case (centauros).
Inquit – literally ‘he says’ historic present used with quotations, can be translated ‘he said.’
Dabo – translated ‘if I give’ but literally means ‘if I will give’.
Dé quartó labóre, quem suprá nárrávimus,
Concerning the fourth labour, which we told about above,
haec etiam tráduntur.
these things also are reported.
Herculés dum iter in Arcadiam facit,
Hercules while he made his way into Arcadia,
ad eam regiónem vénit quam centaurí incolébant.
came to that region which the centaurs used to inhabit.
Cum nox iam appeteret,
Since night was already drawing in,
ad spéluncam dévertit in quá centaurus quídam,
he turned aside towards a cave in which a certain centaur,
nómine Pholus, habitábat.
by the name of Pholus, was living.
Ille Herculem benígné excépit et cénam parávit.
He welcomed Hercules kindly and prepared a meal.
At Herculés postquam cénávit, vínum á Pholó postulávit.
But after he dined Hercules asked Pholus for wine.
Erat autem in spéluncá mágna amphora
Now there was in the cave a large wine jar
vínó optimó repléta, quam centaurí ibi déposuerant.
filled with excellent wine, which the centaurs had put there.
Pholus igitur hóc vínum dare nólébat,
Pholus therefore did not want to give this wine,
quod reliquós centaurós timébat;
because he was afraid of the other centaurs;
núllum tamen vínum praeter hóc in spéluncá habébat.
He had no other wine besides this in the cave.
"Hóc vínum," inquit, "mihi commissum est.
“This wine”, he said “has been entrusted to me.
Sí igitur hóc dabó, centaurí mé interficient."
So if I give this, the centaurs will kill me.”
Herculés tamen eum inrísit,
Hercules however mocked him,
et ipse póculum víní dé amphorá hausit.
And he himself drew a glass of wine from the wine jar.